This ban was temporarily removed by the writer Hanif Ramay who, at that time, was the speaker of the assembly. Kashmiri (كأشُر) is a Dardic language spoken in Azad Kashmir, about 124,000 speakers[8] (or 2% of the Azad Kashmir population). Punjabi Language Movement March in Pakistan on UN International Language Day Feb 21 #NazeerKahut #IMLD #PunjabiLanguage. Punjabi elites identify with Urdu because they see it as the sophisticated language of South Asian Muslims that helps keep Pakistan together. In Punjab, educated elites in Lahore and Islamabad might speak either English or Urdu or both. Turkic languages were used by the ruling Turco-Mongols such as the Mughals and earlier Sultans of the subcontinent. Usually, bare transliterations of Urdu into Roman letters, Roman Urdu, omit many phonemic elements that have no equivalent in English or other languages commonly written in the Latin script. The views expressed in this article are the author’s own and do not necessarily reflect Fair Observer’s editorial policy. During this time, Nastaʿlīq came into widespread use in South Asia. These all refer to the mother tongues of individuals only. The script is used in Pakistan today. [13]. The people of the Punjab today are called Punjabis, and their primary language is Punjabi. Punjabi or Panjabi (پنجابی in Shahmukhi script, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ in Gurmukhi script) is a language spoken by the Punjabis of Pakistan and India. The Connecting Language. It is also spoken in neighbouring areas such as Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh. Pakistan is home to many dozens of languages spoken as first languages. The speakers of Saraiki and Hindko have previously been included in the Punjabi totals. To facilitate their administrators, they enforced Urdu as the vernacular language instead of Punjabi. Register for $9.99 per month and become a member today. As Pakistan's national language, Urdu has been promoted to promote national unity. Yet spoken Punjabi is the shared vernacular of all Punjabis, cutting across religion, sect or caste. © Hussain Warraich. In India, partition led to the abandonment of Hindustani as the national language. Percent speaking a minor language (not collected on the 1998 census) natively. Upper-class Punjabis like other upper-class South Asians were educated in English and had little love for vernacular languages or literature. A mud house in a village of Punjab. Despite the domination of Punjabis, Pakistan has employed Urdu as a medium of instruction since its inception. Learn more about how we use cookies or edit your cookie preferences. Punjabi language is spoken roughly in area between Islamabad and Delhi. Sikhism adopted Gurmukhi, a distinct script devised by Guru Angad, the second of the 10 Sikh gurus who succeeded Guru Nanak. Your donation is tax-deductible. It is also spoken in East Punjab (India) where it is a state language. The Punjabi language is not given official national recognition in Pakistan; rather it is considered a provincial language of Punjab. Watch Queue Queue Between them was India. Sindhi language has six major dialects: Sireli, Vicholi, Lari, Thari, Lasi and Kachhi. There were 321,000 speakers of Gilgiti Shina in 1981. But kids will be kids … In the light of these examples, the case of Pakistani Punjabi elites and intelligentsia adopting Urdu as their language of written communication and formal speech makes sense. "Languages in Turkey." Eventually, Punjabi was granted status as a provincial language in Punjab Province. Nevertheless, the rise of Hindu nationalism and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) has strengthened the use of Sanskritized Hindi in government. Video from Sp Singh. It is widely spoken in the Lasbela District of Balochistan (where the Lasi tribe speaks a dialect of Sindhi), many areas of the Naseerabad, Rahim Yar Khan and Dera Ghazi Khan districts in Sindh and Jafarabad districts of Balochistan, and by the Sindhi diaspora abroad. A key question arises: Why have Pakistani Punjabis disowned their mother tongue? It is spoken as a first language by over 44% of Pakistanis. Sindhi is spoken by over 53.4 million people in Pakistan and some 5.8 million in India as well as some 2.6 million in other parts of the world. In Pakistan, almost everything in Urdu is written in the script, concentrating the greater part of Nastaʿlīq usage in the world. It has a rich literature and is taught in schools. Join our community of more than 2,500 contributors to publish your perspective, share your narrative and shape the global discourse. Instead, the country’s officialdom increasingly uses a Sanskritized form of Hindi, even as most young people speak a mixture of Hindi and English termed Hinglish. Gujari also known as Gojri (ગુજરી, गुजरी, گُوجَری) is a variety of Indo-Aryan spoken by the Gurjars and other tribes including Bakarwals residing in all the provinces of Pakistan, and Azad Kashmir.[7]. Saraiki is to a high degree mutually intelligible with Standard Punjabi and shares with it a large portion of its vocabulary and morphology. It emerged as the independent nation of Bangladesh in 1971 and promptly chose Bangla as its official language. Languages of Pakistan. It is worth mentioning that Pakistan is not alone in facing a problem with a national language. Some of the important languages in the Indo-Aryan group are dialect continuums. [citation needed], Other languages spoken by linguistic minorities include the languages listed below, with speakers ranging from a few hundred to tens of thousands. During much of the time of Sikh gurus and Sufi saints, the official language of Punjab was Persian. Sarhaddi is a sub-dialect of Rakshani. There are several dialects continuums in the Iranian group as well: Balochi, which includes Eastern, Western and Southern Balochi;[25] and Pashto, and includes Northern, Central, and Southern Pashto.[26]. It might no longer be the written language of the state. Of these, 66 are indigenous and 8 are non-indigenous. The Chaghatai language, in which Babur had written his memoirs, disappeared almost entirely from the culture of the courtly elite, and Mughal emperor Akbar could not speak it. The Mughal Empire adopted Persian as the court language during their rule over South Asia as did their predecessors, such as the Ghaznavids. The state officialdom largely hailed from the Turco-Afghan nobility and conducted their affairs in Persian. Two states emerged when Indians won independence: India and Pakistan. Help us to inform and educate. Although Punjabi was the majority language in West Pakistan when Pakistan was created in 1947, and Bengali the majority in East Pakistan and Pakistan as a whole, English and Urdu were chosen as the official languages. The biggest linguistic group in West Pakistan were Punjabis who spoke Punjabi. Five languages have more than 10 million speakers each in Pakistan – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, Saraiki and Urdu. The reason for such a wide range is the debate over Saraiki. Similarly Punjabi Hindus declared Hindi, a language spoken in UP by Muslims and Hindus, their mother language. Balochi and Pashto are written in Perso-Arabic script. There is some mutual understanding with Indian Pakistani although interestingly they both use different scripts. Other sub-dialects are Kalati (Qalati), Chagai-Kharani and Panjguri. In Canada, it is the fifth most-spoken native language. In multi-language societies, the choice of national or state language is always problematic. The state arrested and killed many students, teachers and intellectuals at Dhaka University. The Indian National Congress (INC) claimed to represent all Indians irrespective of religion. Punjabis dominate the Pakistani state and society at all levels from politics, bureaucracy and the ubiquitous military to economics and culture. Curiously, this language is the mother tongue of only 7-8% of Pakistanis. The main religion of the Pakistani Punjab region is Islam. Refugees fled from one country to another. Join our network of more than 2,000 contributors to publish your perspective, share your story and shape the global conversation. [14] Others include illegal immigrants who migrated from Bangladesh after 1971. When Guru Nanak founded Sikhism in the early 16th century, Punjabi became the language of a community that consolidated as a religious community under his spiritual successors. There were 76 million Punjabi speakers in Pakistan in 2008. It is a required subject of study in all primary and secondary schools. However, the ban was revived afterward. At the same time in its phonology it is radically different (particularly in the lack of tones, the preservation of the voiced aspirates and the development of implosive consonants), and has important grammatical features in common with the Sindhi language spoken to the south. It is because the Punjabi elites have given up on its language and adopted two other languages supposedly more sophisticated and modern than their native tongue. Once Bangladesh seceded, Punjabi domination strengthened. Newspapers, novels, poems and high literature in Punjabi might be in short supply, but the oral language runs strong. It is the medium of everyday communication in the Indian state of Punjab. Punjabi is spoken as a native language by over 44.15% of Pakistanis. These cookies track our website’s performance and also help us to continuously improve the experience we provide to you. Most of the languages of Pakistan belong to the Indo-Iranian (more commonly known as Indo-Iranic[17]) branch of the Indo-European language family. English is seen as the language of upward mobility, and its use is becoming more prevalent in upper social circles, where it is often spoken alongside native Pakistani languages. Most of the people who speak this language live in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India.It is also widely spoken in Haryana, India Himachal Pradesh, India and Delhi, India.It is spoken by the majority of the population of Pakistan. Become a Fair Observer and help us make sense of the world. It declares in article 31 No. We bring you perspectives from around the world. Punjabi is the predominantly spoken language in the Punjab province of Pakistan (and the most widely spoken language in Pakistan according to the CIA factbook), although it has no official status there, and both Ur… Sindhi adopted a variant of the Persian alphabet as well, in the 19th century. Saraiki was included with Punjabi in the 1951 and 1961 censuses. The influence remains to this day. Rahman, Tariq (2011) From Hindi to Urdu: A Social and Political History Karachi: Oxford University Press. The two main religions of the Indian Punjab region are Sikhism and Hinduism. In a radical choice, Israel decided to make Hebrew its national language. The Punjab in India publishes more than two dozen Punjabi language newspapers. This video is unavailable. Since 1971, Urdu became further entrenched. Four of these are provincial languages – Punjabi, Pashto, Sindhi, and Balochi. The country also has several regional languages, including Punjabi, Saraiki, Pashto, Sindhi, Balochi, Gujari, Kashmiri, Hindko, Brahui, Shina, Balti, Khowar, Of 213 million Pakistanis, Punjabi is spoken by 48-55% of the population. Pakistan's national language is Urdu. The type of digital cookie information collected during your visit and any derived data cannot be used or combined with other information to personally identify you. That tradition was continued by later Sufis such as Shah Hussain, Bahu Shah, Bulleh Shah and Waris Shah. Despite Urdu being Pakistan’s national language, people prefer to speak in their native tongues. ", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Languages_of_Pakistan&oldid=994368702, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Articles needing additional references from February 2016, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from February 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2016, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2017, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Punjabi is the most widely spoken language across Pakistan. There are small pockets of Turkic speakers found throughout the country, notably in the valleys in the countries northern regions which lie adjacent to Central Asia, western Pakistani region of Waziristan principally around Kanigoram where the Burki tribe dwells and in Pakistan's urban centres of Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad. Dhatki, Haryanvi, Marwari, Wakhi and Burushaski. Learn Punjabi (Pakistani) through conversations. It is a modification of the Persian alphabet, which is itself a derivative of the Arabic alphabet. Other religious groups are Christianity, … However, from what I have seen, most of the people in Punjab – especially those living in the urban centres – do not encourage their children to speak in their mother tongue – Punjabi. Instead, the Muslim League, as it has come to be known, claimed to represent all Indian Muslims. Saraiki is the first language of about 20 million people in Pakistan, its territory ranges across southern Punjab, parts of southern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and some border regions of northern Sindh and eastern Balochistan. They have sometimes been referred to as Greater Punjabi. Dwyer, Arienne M. "The texture of tongues: Languages and power in China." Nationalism and Ethnic Politics 4.1-2 (1998): 68-85. Hebrew was the ancient language of Jews and had not been spoken for centuries. Of 213 million Pakistanis, Punjabi is spoken by 48-55% of the population. It has resulted in considerable resistance by the Kurds, a people proud of their identity and language. Persian was officially abolished with the arrival of the British: in Sindh in 1843 and in Punjab in 1849. Punjabi language is not only spoken in Pakistan and India but it is also spoken in the countries like Canada, United Kingdom, United States of America and all other countries wherever The total number of speakers make the majority percentage of the population, Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (2005). In Pakistan Punjabi is spoken by some 70 million speakers, mostly in Punjab province, but official status at both the national and the provincial level is reserved for Urdu. Even today, the language continues to be the day-to-day medium of communication and interaction. About 70.0% of the people of Pakistan speak Punjabi as either their first or second language, and for some as their third language. A majority of Pakistan's Muslim population has had some form of formal or informal education in the reading, writing and pronunciation of the Arabic language as part of their religious education. Curiously, this language is the mother tongue of only 7-8% of Pakistanis. The other is Marwari, and includes Marwari of Pakistan and several languages of India (Dhundari, Marwari, Merwari, Mewari, and Shekhawati). On April 2, 1849, the British annexed Punjab 10 years after the death of Ranjit Singh, the founder of a Lahore-based Sikh empire. Arabic is taught as a religious language in mosques, schools, colleges, universities and madrassahs. [6] Pashto is also widely spoken in neighboring Afghanistan where it has official language status. No language other than Urdu.”. Punjabi was also adopted by another faith. It rejected Hindustani as the national language and declared Urdu to be the official language of Indian Muslims. 1. [18][19] They are divided between two or three major groups: Indo-Aryan (the majority, including Urdu, Punjabi, Sindhi, Hindko, and Saraiki, among others), Iranian (or Iranic[20]) (the major ones being Pashto, Balochi, and Khowar, among others) and Dardic (the major one being Kashmiri). As a person who is well versed in Punjabi roots from generations, this answer will help you to understand why I support International Mother Language Day and never writes Urdu or English in my Quora profile language credentials. Most North Indians continue to speak Hindustani, which is also the preferred language of Bollywood, India’s multibillion-dollar film industry. These two parts of the country were approximately 1,600 kilometers apart. It declared Hindustani, the common vernacular of north India with the Devanagari and Persian scripts, as the national language of a future independent, united India. Balochi (بلوچی) is spoken as a first language by about 3% of Pakistanis, mostly in Balochistan province. [15], As of 2017[update] some Pakistanis are learning Chinese to do business with companies from the People's Republic of China.[16]. However, Punjabis dominated young Pakistan and its powerful military. Percent speaking either Balochi or Brahui natively. In northern India, the common lingua franca was Hindustani. The two parts of Pakistan were divided by more than distance. Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language.It is the first language of about 130 million people, and is the 10th most spoken language in the world. An apt example is Turkey where the Turkish language alone is declared as the state language. It is written in the Arabic script with several additional letters to accommodate special sounds. It is the official language of the Indian states of Punjab and Haryana. Ethnologue lists 74 languages in Pakistan. Almost all of Pakistan's languages belong to the Indo-Iranian group of the Indo-European language family. Rev.ed. It began to be used in literary communications and in writings from at least the 13th century. Some letters that are distinguished in Arabic or Persian are homophones in Sindhi. On February 21, 1952, less than four years after the Jinnah’s speech, Pakistan brutally cracked down on those demanding the adoption of Bangla as the second national language. The Punjabi dialects and languages are a series of dialects and languages spoken in the Punjab region of Pakistan and India with varying degrees of official recognition. He also went on to say that English would be taught alongside Urdu in schools.[9]. The National Education Policy 2017 declares in article 3.7.4 that: “Arabic as compulsory part will be integrated in Islamiyat from Middle to Higher Secondary level to enable the students to understand the Holy Quran.“ Furthermore, it specifies in article 3.7.6: “Arabic as elective subject shall be offered properly at Secondary and Higher Secondary level with Arabic literature and grammar in its course to enable the learners to have command in the language.“ This law is also valid for private schools as it defines in article 3.7.12: “The curriculum in Islamiyat, Arabic and Moral Education of public sector will be adopted by the private institutions to make uniformity in the society.“[11], Persian (فارسی) was the official and cultural language of the Mughal Empire, a continuation since the introduction of the language by Central Asian Turkic invaders who migrated into the Indian Subcontinent,[12] and the patronisation of it by the earlier Turko-Persian Delhi Sultanate. The Indo-Iranian languages derive from a reconstructed common proto-language, called Proto-Indo-Iranian. Later in life, Humayun himself is said to have spoken in Persian verse more often than not. Pakistan's Constitution and laws were written in English and are now being re-written in the local languages. source: omniglot.com. Some valiant champions of Punjabi continue to propagate the cause of the Punjabi language, but this has been confined to small intellectual circles. English (previous colonial and co-official language), Arabic (historical official language, religious and minor literary language), Persian (previous colonial and literary language), Bengali (previous regional and immigrant language), Turkic languages (previous colonial and immigrant languages), About eight percent speak it as a first language or only language. It is also spoken in the Gurez, Drass, Kargil, Karkit Badgam and Ladakh valleys of Kashmir. Languages of Pakistan Languages of Pakistan Punjabi پنجابی, ਪੰਜਾਬੀ (Pañjābī) Spoken in: Pakistan and India. Bengali was recognised as the second official language of Pakistan on 29 February 1956, and article 214(1) of the constitution of Pakistan was reworded to "The state language of Pakistan shall be Urdu and Bengali".